Publication Type

Journal Article

Version

Postprint

Publication Date

5-2006

Abstract

According to the hedonic treadmill model, good and bad events temporarily affect happiness, but people quickly adapt back to hedonic neutrality. The theory, which has gained widespread acceptance in recent years, implies that individual and societal efforts to increase happiness are doomed to failure. The recent empirical work outlined here indicates that 5 important revisions to the treadmill model are needed. First, individuals' set points are not hedonically neutral. Second, people have different set points, which are partly dependent on their temperaments. Third, a single person may have multiple happiness set points: Different components of well-being such as pleasant emotions, unpleasant emotions, and life satisfaction can move in different directions. Fourth, and perhaps most important, well-being set points can change under some conditions. Finally, individuals differ in their adaptation to events, with some individuals CHANging their set point and others not CHANging in reaction to some external event. These revisions offer hope for psychologists and policymakers who aim to decrease human misery and increase happiness.

Keywords

adaptation, coping, happiness, life satisfaction, subjective well-being

Discipline

Gender and Sexuality | Social Psychology

Research Areas

Psychology

Publication

American Psychologist

Volume

61

Issue

4

First Page

305

Last Page

314

ISSN

0003-066X

Identifier

10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.305

Publisher

American Psychological Association

Copyright Owner and License

Authors

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Additional URL

http://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.305

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