Title

Explaining East-West Differences in the Likelihood of Making Favorable Self-Evaluation: The Role of Evaluation Apprehension and Directness of Expression

Publication Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

1-2010

Abstract

The authors contend that although people in both Eastern and Western cultures are motivated to make favorable self-evaluations, the actual likelihood of expressing favorable self-evaluations in a concrete situation depends on (a) the dominant self-presentation norms in the culture, (b) how salient the norm is in the immediate situation, and (c) the availability of normatively permissible means to make favorable self-evaluations. The authors tested this proposal in three studies. Study 1 showed that given the strong influence of the modesty norm in Eastern cultures, Chinese are more comfortable making favorable self-evaluations when evaluation apprehension pressure in the immediate situation is reduced. Furthermore, Studies 2 and 3 showed that Asian Americans and Chinese are more comfortable making favorable self-evaluations when they can do it indirectly by denying possession of negative traits than when they have to do it directly by claiming possession of positive traits. In contrast, among European Americans, given the relative weak influence of the modesty norm in their culture, they are equally comfortable with making favorable self-evaluations in public and private situations through affirmation of positive self-aspects and repudiation of negative self-aspects.

Keywords

cross-cultural differences, self-evaluations, modesty, negativity

Discipline

Multicultural Psychology | Personality and Social Contexts

Research Areas

Psychology

Publication

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

Volume

41

Issue

1

First Page

62

Last Page

75

ISSN

0022-0221

Identifier

10.1177/0022022109348921

Publisher

SAGE

Additional URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022109348921

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