How did family characteristics affect women and men differently in self-employment participation in urban China? Analyses of national data show dual marriage penalties for women. Marketization made married women more vulnerable to lay-offs from state-sector jobs; their likelihood of being pushed into unskilled self-employment surpassed that of any other groups. The revitalized patriarchal family tradition favored men in family businesses and resulted in their higher rates of entering entrepreneurial self-employment. Married women who had the education to pursue entrepreneurial self-employment were constrained by family responsibilities to state-sector jobs for access to family services, and had much lower rates in entering self-employment.
self-employment, family, job mobility, gender segregation, Asia, China
Asian Studies | Family, Life Course, and Society | Gender and Sexuality
ZHANG, Qian Forrest, & PAN, Zi.(2012). Women’s Entry into Self-employment in Urban China: The Role of Family in Creating Gendered Mobility Patterns. World Development, 40(6), 1201-1212.
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