Publication Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

12-1981

Abstract

The history of universities has been one of intermittent struggle them or their constituent members and external groups seeking exercise control over the activities of teachers and students. Many European and American universities first developed in close co-ordination with churches. The ecclesiastical authorities long exercised, and some- times still do exercise, great control over curriculum, pedagogy extracurricular activities.1 Orthodoxy, not free inquiry, has more often not been the demand of the church. The secularisation of universities has freed them from much of the imposed religious orthodoxy, but has brought new agents of control into the picture, the most notable of which are private benefactors and the state. Private beneficence has been marked by the fewest intrusions, but except in the United States, Canada and Japan, private wealth has been an insignificant source of support in comparison to governmental largesse. Even so, the great donors of privately accumulated wealth have not always been willing to yield all control over the ways in which their gifts have been used by universities.

Keywords

Academic freedom, Freedom of speech, Universities, First Amendment, College students, Government regulation, Political speeches, Teachers, Statutory law, Government

Discipline

Higher Education

Research Areas

Law, Society and Governance

Publication

Minerva

Volume

19

Issue

4

First Page

519

Last Page

568

ISSN

0026-4695

Identifier

10.1007/BF01096192

Publisher

Springer Verlag

Copyright Owner and License

Author

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Additional URL

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41820474

Share

COinS