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Working Paper

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This article explores issues from the use of equity swaps by corporate stakeholders under Singapore law. The article accepts that non-disclosure of economic interests might have an impact on market efficiency and corporate governance. To address potential problems, Singapore should consider revising the Takeover Code, while it requires further regulatory impact analysis to decide whether amendments to the Securities and Futures Act and the Companies Act are needed. As an alternative, companies can use their articles of association to impose a duty of disclosure before statutory intervention. In addition, the trading of equity swaps by directors raises issues about fiduciary duties. Although companies can probably trade equity swaps that reference their own shares, it is likely the financial assistance rule will be breached if the market reality stands.


financial derivative, equity swap, company law, fiduciary duty, financial assistance, disclosure, interest in shares, corporate governance


Business Organizations Law

Research Areas

Commercial Law

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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