Publication Type

Working Paper

Publication Date



Motivated by the first differencing method for linear panel data models, we propose a class of iterative local polynomial estimators for nonparametric dynamic panel data models with or without exogeous regressors. The estimators utilize the additive structure of the first-differenced model, the fact that the two additive components have the same functional form, and the unknown function of interest is implicitly defined as a solution of a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. We establish the uniform consistency and asymptotic normality of the estimators. We also propose a consistent test for the correct specification of linearity in typical dynamic panel data models based on the L2 distance of our nonparametric estimates and the parametric estimates under the linear restriction. We derive the asymptotic distributions of the test statistic under the null hypothesis and a sequence of Pitman local alternatives, and prove its consistency against global alternatives. Simulations suggest that the proposed estimators and tests perform well in finite samples. We apply our new methods to study the relation between economic growth, initial economic condition and capital accumulation and find the nonlinear relation between economic growth and initial economic condition.


Additive models, Dynamic panel data models, Fredholm integral equation, Iterative estimator, Linearity, Local polynomial regression, Specification test



Research Areas


City or Country

Revised and resubmitted

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Included in

Economics Commons