Many articles and books have been written to extol the advantages and virtues of flags of convenience (FOC) shipping, argue its necessi ty, and defend the practice. However, from the earliest days there has been opposition to FOC shipping, and lately the disenchantment over this questionable form of open registry has led to the potentially rapid growth of what can be termed as quasi-FOC arrangements. This article will first briefly trace the trend from FOCs to quasi-FOCs, outline the legal framework for regulating international shipping, then discuss the problems, opposition, and legal challenges to open registries. Finally, it will trace in detail the emergence and growth of quasi-FOCs, which is expected to be the wave of the future in international shipping.
Tax havens, Shipping industry, Registration, Maritime law, Manycountries, Regulation, Maritime industry, Law, International trade
Economics | Transportation
TOH, Rex S. and PHANG, Sock Yong.
Quasi-flag of convenience shipping: The wave of the future. (1993). Transportation Journal. 33, (2), 31-39. Research Collection School Of Economics.
Available at: http://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/soe_research/115
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