Chaining Watermarks for Detecting Malicious Modifications to Streaming Data
Authenticating streaming data is a very important research area due to its wide range of applications. Previous technologies mainly focused on authenticating data packets at the IP layer and ensuring the robustness of the verification. These schemes usually incur large communications overhead, which is not desirable in applications with limited bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a novel fragile watermarking algorithm which verifies the integrity of streaming data at the application layer. The data are divided into groups based on synchronization points, so each group can be synchronized and any modifications made to one group only affect up to two groups. A unique watermark is embedded directly into each group to save communications bandwidth. The embedded watermark can detect as well as locate any modifications made to a data stream. To ensure the completeness of the data stream, watermarks are chained across groups so that no matter how many data are deleted, these deletions can be correctly detected. Security analysis and experimental results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently detect and locate modifications and ensure the completeness of data streams.
Fragile watermarking, Streaming data, Integrity
Information Security and Trust
GUO, Huiping; LI, Yingjiu; and Jajodia, Sushil.
Chaining Watermarks for Detecting Malicious Modifications to Streaming Data. (2007). Information Sciences. 177, (1), 281-298. Research Collection School Of Information Systems.
Available at: http://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/sis_research/1184