Self-esteem and Women’s Performance in Mixed-gender Negotiations

Publication Type

Conference Proceeding Article

Publication Date



Past research shows gender stereotype threat effect negatively affects women's economic negotiation outcomes, but little is known about moderators of this effect. The present research investigated self-esteem (SE) level and social contingent self-esteem (SCSE) as potential buffers to the gender stereotype threat effect. Based on the contingencies of self-worth model (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001), we hypothesized that SE level interacts with SCSE to determine women's outcomes at the bargaining table such that high SE women with low SCSE do not confirm gender stereotypes and achieve higher performance in mixed-gender negotiations. Drawing on the integrated process model of stereotype threat effects (Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008), we further hypothesized that anxiety mediates this interaction effect. Results from two experiments were generally consistent with our predictions. Our research highlights the importance of individual differences in SE level and SCSE, as well as anxiety, in understanding the stereotype threat effect in women's negotiations outcomes.


negotiation, gender, self-esteem, stereotype threat


Organizational Behavior and Theory | Psychology

Research Areas

Organisational Behaviour and Human Resources


Academy of Management Proceedings: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2015, August 7-11




Academy of Management

City or Country

San Diego

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