Symbolic and Functional Positioning of Brands
Some brand strategists have distinguished between symbolic and functional brands, i.e. brands that basically satisfy consumers’ functional or product-related needs and brands bought to enhance self- or social esteem. It has been suggested that brands should be positioned as either functional or symbolic but not both. However, empirical research on the dimensionality of brand symbolism/functionality has been lacking. In this study, scales were developed to assess a brand’s symbolic or functional association with consumers. Subsequent data analysis suggests that brand symbolism and functionality are separate phenomena and, further, that symbolism comprises two dimensions, termed prestige and personality expression. Thus, contrary to current thinking, it seems that brands can be successfully positioned as both symbolic and functional and, if a symbolic brand concept is desired, prestige or upscaleness is just one of the possible positioning options available.
Brand identity, Brand image, Brand names, Consumer behaviour, Product positioning, Product strategy
Marketing | Sales and Merchandising
Journal of Consumer Marketing
BHAT, Subodh and REDDY, Srinivas K..
Symbolic and Functional Positioning of Brands. (1998). Journal of Consumer Marketing. 15, (1), 32-43. Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business.
Available at: http://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/lkcsb_research/2988