The Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Needs, Traits, Goals, Selves, and Social Supports, and Cultural Contexts
Although most researchers acknowledge that subjective well-being (SWB) is multiply determined, little research and theory simultaneously considers the effects of many types of determinants, located at many different levels of analysis. Guided by a six-level model of optimal human being (Sheldon, 2004, 'Optimal Human Being: An Integrated Multi-level Perspective' (Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.)), we tested the hypothesis that psychological need-satisfaction, a positive Big Five trait profile, good personal goal-progress, high self-esteem, positive social support, and a happiness-conducing cultural membership would each uniquely predict SWB. These hypotheses were confirmed, supporting the hierarchical perspective and irreducibility assumption that under-girded the research. Implications for SWB theory and interventions, and for the task of integrating the many different types of personality constructs that exist, are discussed.
subjective well-being, personality hierarchies, culture
Organizational Behavior and Theory
Organisational Behaviour and Human Resources
Journal of Happiness Studies
City or Country
SHELDON, Kennon M. and TAN, Hwee Hoon.
The Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Needs, Traits, Goals, Selves, and Social Supports, and Cultural Contexts. (2007). Journal of Happiness Studies. 8, (4), 565-592. Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business.
Available at: http://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/lkcsb_research/2667