Although most of Southeast Asia is home to religions and cultures carrying signiﬁcant Indic inﬂuence, Vietnam alone is the mainland’s only Sinicised culture. Chinese emperors directly ruled northern Vietnam for most of the period spanning 111 BCE to 938 CE. The next eight hundred years saw a series of independent Vietnamese kingdoms administered by Chinese-style mandarins gradually extend control over and supplant the Indic Champa civilisation to the south—even as French incursions began chipping away at Vietnamese territory as early as 1858.
Vietnam, History, Culture, Development
Asian History | Asian Studies | Growth and Development
Institute for Societal Leadership
City or Country
Institute for Societal Leadership and ELLINGTON, John W..
The Vietnam Report: National Landscape, Current Challenges and Opportunities for Growth. (2015). Published. 1-20. Institute of Societal Leadership Research Collection.
Available at: http://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/isl_research/10
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Singapore Management University