Ze Ling NAI

Publication Type

PhD Dissertation

Publication Date



Objective: This study examined the effects of trait gratitude on relationship satisfaction amongst friends through two potential mechanisms – perceived fulfillment of positive expectations and perceived burden of negative exchanges. The study also aimed to examine whether grateful people over-perceive the benefits received from friends. Method: 101 pairs of same-sex friends were recruited from Singapore Management University to take part in a dyad study. Participants were asked to rate their relationship expectations, and the benefits received and performed for their partner. Participants were also asked to rate their tolerance, and the burdens caused by and imposed on their partner. Results: Trait gratitude was positively associated with perceived benefits and relationship expectations. In addition, grateful people tended to over-perceive benefits received from their partners. Trait gratitude was also negatively associated with perceived burdens and grateful people were more likely to under-perceive burdens received from their partners. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest how grateful people experience greater relationship satisfaction. Other proposed implications include the role of expectations and perceptual illusions in relationships satisfaction.


trait gratitude, relationship expectations, relationship satisfaction, positive and negative social exchanges

Degree Awarded

PhD in Psychology


Developmental Psychology | Social Psychology and Interaction


TOV, William

City or Country

Singapore Management University

Copyright Owner and License

Singapore Management University

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.